After you create a custom app or extend a standard SAP Fiori app, tile is required for launching the app. Here are screenshots explain the launchpad objects relationship.

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-1

  1. User -> Role (Transaction: SU01)
  2. Role -> Catalog/Group (Transaction: PFCG)
  3. Catalog/Group -> Tile (launchpad designer)
  4. Tile -> Intent ( launchpad designer, Tile)
  5. Semantic Object (Transaction: /UI2/SEMOBJ and /UI2/SEMOBJ_SAP)
  6. Intent -> Application Alias (launchpad designer, Target Mapping)
  7. Application Alias -> App URL (in LPD_CUST)
  8. Application Alias -> Component ID (in LPD_CUST)
  9. App -> Component ID in Configuration.js (Transaction: SE80)

Example app is Approve Purchase Order.

1. User -> Role (Transaction: SU01)
The user has roles SAP_MM_BCR_BUYER_X1 (Group) and SAP_MM_TCR_T_X1 (Catalog).

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-2

Role names are documented in App catalog of help.sap.com.
Business Role = Group.
Technical Role = Catalog.

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-3

2. Role -> Catalog/Group (Transaction: PFCG)
The role SAP_MM_BCR_BUYER_X1 has Menu object Group: SAP_MM_BCG_BUYER_X1.

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-4

3. Catalog/Group -> Tile (launchpad designer)
The catalog has the tile Approve Purchase Order. When the tile is selected in the launchpad, the app should be launched.

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-5

4. Tile -> Intent ( launchpad designer, Tile)
The tile Approve Purchase Order has intent PurchaseOrder-approve.
Intent = Semantic Object + Action.

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-6

 

5. Semantic Object (Transaction: /UI2/SEMOBJ and /UI2/SEMOBJ_SAP)
Semantic Objects are defined in the transaction /UI2/SEMOBJ (for customer) and /UI2/SEMOBJ_SAP (for SAP)

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-7

6. Intent -> Application Alias (launchpad designer, Target Mapping)
The intent has Application Alias.

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-8

7. Application Alias -> App URL (in LPD_CUST)
Application Alias -> Component ID (in LPD_CUST)
The Application Alias is defined in the transaction LPD_CUST. LPD_CUST role is documented in the step 1.

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-9

Application Alias has App URL. URL = /sap/bc/ui5_ui5/sap/mm_po_apv.
Additional information has Component ID. SAPUI5.Component=ui.s2p.mm.purchorder.approve

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-10

8. App -> Component ID in Configuration.js (Transaction: SE80)
The app mm_po_apv has several Java Script and component ID is defined.

sap-fiori-understanding-launchpad-object-relationship-11